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// Applied Sport Psychology · Education · Performance · Womens Azeline Text Af Black Closed Toe Heels Ted Baker A25pi
Written by Lauren Taylor 2 minute read Comments Off on Anticipation skill in sport

Why do expert athletes often appear to have ‘ all the time in the world ’ to respond in highly time constrained sports, while novices appear challenged by rapid speed of play? This distinction between experts and their less-skilled counterparts has been at the heart of discussion in the sports perception literature in recent years and the vast majority of this research has revealed experts to be superior at anticipating the outcome of opponents’ actions (e.g., Abernethy Zawi, 2007). The ability to anticipate or “predict” an upcoming shot in tennis, or the direction of a penalty kick in football prior to unambiguous ball flight information becoming available (i.e., before ball-foot or ball-racket contact) affords players with crucial time to dedicate to both getting to and preparing for an effective response.

The extra time offered via successful anticipation is not only advantageous, but may also be essential in circumstances where the time taken to process and respond to a stimulus exceeds the ball-flight time. For tasks such as the tennis serve for instance, Abernethy (1991) calculated that a ball travelling at 40-45m/s will result in a receiver having as little as 500ms (half a second) to a) judge the speed and direction of the ball, b) move and get in the right position for the return, c) decide where to hit the return shot and d) prepare for and execute the stroke needed for the desired return. On this basis, the ability to accurately anticipate opponents’ intentions during the early stages of their shot preparation is a requisite skill that separates “great” athletes from “good” athletes.

In an attempt to identify the critical sources of information needed to make effective anticipatory judgements, researchers have typically used temporal occlusion (i.e., video clips that are cut off at various points in an opponent’s action sequence) or spatial occlusion paradigms (i.e., video clips where sections of the display are hidden) as well as visual search techniques in their studies. The findings from such studies have found that experts utilise advanced visual cues displayed in an opponent’s preparatory movements that are otherwise overlooked by novices (e.g. Jackson and Mogan, 2007; Ward, Williams and Bennett 2002). In other words, experts identify with the most information rich areas, direct their attention appropriately, and extract meaning from these areas more efficiently and effectively than novices (Mann, Williams, Ward Janelle, 2007).

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The artichoke is a giant thistle flower bud. It is sometimes called the globe artichoke , or French artichoke to avoid confusion with the Aventin Denise Womens Brogue Berkemann bss4x
, which is an entirely different plant that sometimes goes by the confusing name "Jerusalem artichoke".

Unlike most vegetables, only a very small part of the artichoke is actually edible — the very bases of the "leaves" and the interior heart. The heart of the flower is topped with spiky bristles or hairs that would be unpleasant to consume, and the leaves are extremely tough and fibrous.

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dish at the beginning of a meal.


High-quality artichokes are usually compact and heavy for their size. Squeezed, a fresh artichoke will make a squeak. The thickness of each stalk should correspond to the size of the artichoke. Thin stalks signal dehydration, so look for stalks that are firm without “give.”

Artichokes remain fairly constant in appearance for weeks, but flavor is adversely affected from the moment they are cut from the stalk. For maximum taste and tenderness, cook as soon as possible. Do not stock up on artichokes. Refrigerate unwashed, in a plastic bag, for up to 1 week.

Start by cutting the thorns off with kitchen scissors or simply take a kitchen knife and cut straight across the top part off the artichoke. This will leave a flat top on the artichoke. Note that "thorn-free" artichokes, besides having far less of the edible part, generally do have little hidden thorns that are hard to remove.

Artichokes should be very well cooked. This is required to soften them enough to eat. Make sure to check the water level as the artichoke will absorb water as it softens. Add more water if they are still not tender and continue to cook. Unlike most vegetables, artichokes should be cooked until they are a darker color green than when they were fresh.

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, steamed , or pressure cooked , although steaming is best. When steaming, spread the leaves a bit and place the artichokes stem-end-up to ensure that plenty of steam gets to the inside. Microwaving is essentially steaming; cover the artichokes and add a bit of water.

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