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If you have a different database and aren’t sure if it supports DDL transactions, check the django.db.connection.features.can_rollback_ddl attribute.

If the RunPython operation is part of a
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, the operation will only be executed in a transaction if atomic=True is passed to the RunPython operation.


does not magically alter the connection of the models for you; any model methods you call will go to the default database unless you give them the current database alias (available from , where is the second argument to your function).

Pass the RunPython.noop method to code or reverse_code when you want the operation not to do anything in the given direction. This is especially useful in making the operation reversible.

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A highly specialized operation that let you mix and match the database (schema-changing) and state (autodetector-powering) aspects of operations.

It accepts two list of operations, and when asked to apply state will use the state list, and when asked to apply changes to the database will use the database list. Do not use this operation unless you’re very sure you know what you’re doing.

Operations have a relatively simple API, and they’re designed so that you can easily write your own to supplement the built-in Django ones. The basic structure of an Operation looks like this:

You can take this template and work from it, though we suggest looking at the built-in Django operations in django.db.migrations.operations - they’re easy to read and cover a lot of the example usage of semi-internal aspects of the migration framework like ProjectState and the patterns used to get historical models, as well as ModelState and the patterns used to mutate historical models in state_forwards() .

Some things to note:

You don’t need to learn too much about ProjectState to just write simple migrations; just know that it has an apps property that gives access to an app registry (which you can then call get_model on).

database_forwards and database_backwards both get two states passed to them; these just represent the difference the state_forwards method would have applied, but are given to you for convenience and speed reasons.

If you want to work with model classes or model instances from the from_state argument in database_forwards() or database_backwards() , you must render model states using the clear_delayed_apps_cache() method to make related models available:

Dataset examples and optimized examples of random directions in activation space. The directions shown here were hand-picked for interpretability.

random directions
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We can also define interesting directions in activation space by doing arithmetic on neurons. For example, if we add a “black and white” neuron to a “mosaic” neuron, we obtain a black and white version of the mosaic. This is reminiscent of semantic arithmetic of word embeddings as seen in Word2Vec or generative models’ latent spaces.

By jointly optimizing two neurons we can get a sense of how they interact.

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These examples show us how neurons jointly represent images. To better understand how neurons interact, we can also interpolate between them. The optimization objective is a linear interpolation between the individual channel objectives. To get the interpolations to look better, we also add a small alignment objective that encourages lower layer activations to be similar. We additionally use a combination of separate and shared image parameterizations to make it easier for the optimization algorithm to cause objects to line up, while still giving it the freedom to create any image it needs to. This is similar to interpolating in the latent space of generative models.

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This is only starting to scratch the surface of how neurons interact. The truth is that we have almost no clue how to select meaningful directions, or whether there even exist particularly meaningful directions. Independent of finding directions, there are also questions on how directions interact — for example, interpolation can show us how a small number of directions interact, but in reality there are hundreds of directions interacting.

If you want to visualize features, you might just optimize an image to make neurons fire. Unfortunately, this doesn’t really work. Instead, you end up with a kind of neural network optical illusion — an image full of noise and nonsensical high-frequency patterns that the network responds strongly to.

Even if you carefully tune learning rate, you’ll get noise.

Optimization results are enlarged to show detail and artifacts.

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These patterns seem to be the images kind of cheating, finding ways to activate neurons that don’t occur in real life. If you optimize long enough, you’ll tend to see some of what the neuron genuinely detects as well, but the image is dominated by these high frequency patterns. These patterns seem to be closely related to the phenomenon of adversarial examples .

We don’t fully understand why these high frequency patterns form, but an important part seems to be strided convolutions and pooling operations, which create high-frequency patterns in the gradient .

Figure 4
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The last actively learned model identified 51 'phenotypes,' each phenotype of which is defined by a set of imaged fields. To independently assess the extent to which these phenotypes were different, …

To assess the learner’s ability to find acute changes, we divided experiments into those for which the learner predicted large effects (compared to unperturbed) and those predicted to have small or no change. When we measured the actual effect sizes, the experiments with large predicted effects were indeed observed to have larger effect sizes ( P <0.001, Mann-Whitney U ). Furthermore, for those predicted to have an acute change, the predicted extent of change was modestly correlated with the observed effect magnitude (Pearson’s r= 0.53).

One difficulty with this analysis of effect sizes is that the scale of feature distances are likely different for distinct unperturbed patterns (e.g., nucleolar vs. Golgi), a fact not appreciated by us when we began this work. To correct for this, we formed a 48x48 matrix of the degrees of perturbation by grouping the clones by visual assessment of the unperturbed phenotypes (i.e., grouping by apparent subcellular pattern). These groups were placed on a common scale by normalizing features within each group by their maximum response. The results are shown in 29 Cindy HighRise Cut Off Short size 27 also in 25282930 GRLFRND Cindy High-Rise Cut Off Short. - size 27 (also in 25 30) GRLFRND mizsCn
, in which for display purposes we clustered the drugs using the average perturbation of each group of clones for each drug. This provides a summary of the extent to which each drug affected the spatial distribution of each tagged protein. Beyond the strong perturbations of the cytotoxic drug conditions (drugs between Latrunculin B 1.25mM and 0.31mM), the most striking aspect is that nearly all drugs elicited noticeable changes to protein localization patterns in most experiments. These include effects of perturbagens commonly used in cell biology, such as Brefeldin A, on targets other than their intended compartment (e.g. on nucleoplasmic proteins). A two-way ANOVA model fit to these perturbations (taking each drug cluster as a factor, and each group of clones as an independent factor) indicates that these drug and clone groups are all significantly different ( P <0.05, Tukey’s range test, Bonferroni corrected).

Figure 5
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The amount of perturbation for each combination of drug and clone is shown, with deeper shades of blue indicate larger degrees of perturbation (larger distances from the mean feature values for a …

To confirm and illustrate one of the top-ranked predictions, we reimaged cells expressing tagged Fa2h with and without various treatments using a spinning disc confocal microscope. The active learner predicted that both cycloheximide and Econazole would affect Fa2h localization, and that they would have different effects. Fa2h has been previously suggested to be localized to the endoplasmic reticulum ( 530 OXIDIZED FOOTWEAR Lowtops amp; sneakers New Balance thY16jQP8
), and has been observed to also occasionally localize within the nucleus in MDA-MB-231 cells ( Capra Rapid Sieve Mens Outdoor Multisport Training Shoes Merrell SDIK4SXz
) although no conclusive evidence has been presented. In our images, we have observed a broad range of phenotypes encompassing these and other localizations. We imaged Fa2h localization over a 4hr period (from +2h to +6h after treatment) in a manner otherwise closely resembling the active learning experiment protocol (see Materials and methods). Images of treated vs. vehicle treatments were readily classified by logistic regression (85% accuracy, n =73, P <0.001, one-sided Binomial test against p=0.33, the class-proportional null); see Womens Dream Skinny Trousers MAC 9jopa
. Furthermore, cycloheximide and Econazole treatments were also distinguishable above random guessing (68% accuracy, n =47, P =0.006, one-sided Binomial test against p=0.51, the class-proportional null). Projecting these data onto the two classifiers gives rise to Gaussian distributions for each treatment; consistent with the active learning predictions (and clustering method used), these three conditions have distinguishable distributions. That these classifications are independent of treatment duration suggests that these distributional shifts may be rapidly attained in the first (unmeasured) 2hr; we do not have statistical power to reject the possibility that they are in steady state from 2–6hr thereafter. Taken together, these results confirm our predictions of differences as a result of treatment.

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